Ex. He buys a novel.
Ex. A novel is bought by him.
現在簡單式 (主動) Anna closes the window.
(被動) The window is closed by Anna.
過去簡單式 (主動) Anna closed the window.
(被動) The window was closed by Anna.
未來簡單式 (主動) Anna will close the window.
(被動) The window will be closed by Anna.
現在進行式 (主動) Anna is closing the window.
(被動) The window is being closed by Anna.
過去進行式 (主動) Anna was closing the window.
(被動) The window was being closed by Anna.
現在完成式 (主動) Anna has closed the window.
(被動) The window has been closed by Anna.
過去完成式 (主動) Anna had closed the window.
(被動) The window had been closed by Anna.
注意：只有及物動詞(vt)才有被動語態，被動語態中不可使用不及物動詞(vi)，如 happen, sleep, look, sound, smell, taste, feel, sound, rain, cost, take等。
It is said that….(據說)
Ex. It is said that Erwin will marry Amy next week.
be gone (不見了)
Ex. My car is gone!
be/get lost (迷路)
Ex. When you are lost, call the police.
be/get hurt (受傷)
Ex. You may get hurt if you don’t pay attention to the cars.
be born (出生) 通常用過去式
Ex. I was born on March 28th.
Who broke the window?
→By whom was the window broken?
→Whom was the window broken by?
What did your father buy (for) you?
→What was bought (for) you by your father?
情態助動詞包含can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would等等
1. 肯定句：The work can be done by Tuesday.
2. 否定句：The work can’t be done by Tuesday.
3.疑問句：Can the work be done by Tuesday?